Omega-3 Studien: Tumorentstehung: Speiseröhrenkrebs, Brustkrebs, Dickdarmkrebs

Omega-3: Fakten - Therapie und Dosierung

Tumorentstehung: 1,8g/Tag DHA & EPA bei Speiseröhrenkrebs
In Fachzeitschriften wurden folgende Artikel über Omega-3 publiziert. Die Liste dieser Publikationen wurde im April 2003 kompiliert und erhebt keinen Anspruch auf Vollständigkeit. Quelle: MEDLINE.
Die Daten dienen als Referenz für Ärzte und Therapeuten, damit eine therapeutische Dosis gegen Tumerentstehung festgelegt werden kann.

Effects of adenoviral gene transfer of C. elegans n-3 fatty acid desaturase on the lipid profile and growth of human breast cancer cells.
Ge Y: Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston MA, USA; Chen Z, Kang ZB, Cluette-Brown J, Laposata M, Kang JX
Anticancer Res 2002 Mar-Apr 22:537-43
BACKGROUND: Current evidence from both experimental and human studies indicates that omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFAs) promote breast tumor development, whereas long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) exert suppressive effects. The ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids appears to be an important factor in controlling tumor development. Human cells usually have a very high n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio because they cannot convert n-6 PUFAs to n-3 PUFAs due to lack of an n-3 desaturase found in C. elegans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adenoviral strategies were used to introduce the C. elegans fat-1 gene encoding an n-3 fatty acid desaturase into human breast cancer cells followed by examination of the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio and growth of the cells. RESULTS: Infection of MCF-7 cells with an adenovirus carrying the fat-1 gene resulted in a high expression of the n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Lipid analysis indicated a remarkable increase in the levels of n-3 PUFAs accompanied with a large decrease in the contents of n-6 PUFAs, leading to a change of the n-6/n-3 ratio from 12.0 to 0.8. Accordingly, production of the eicosanoids derived from n-6 PUFA was reduced significantly in cells expressing the fat-1 gene. Importantly, the gene transfer induced mass cell death and inhibited cell proliferation. CONCLUSION: The gene transfer of the n-3 fatty acid desaturase, as a novel approach, can effectively modify the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio of human tumor cells and provide an anticancer effect, without the need of exogenous n-3 PUFA supplementation. These data also increase the understanding of the effects of n-3 fatty acids and the n-6/n-3 ratio on cancer prevention and treatment.

n-3 versus n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in critical illness.
Tashiro T: Department of Surgery, Chiba University School of Medicine, Japan; Yamamori H, Takagi K, Hayashi N, Furukawa K, Nakajima N
Nutrition 1998 Jun 14:551-3
The effects of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on protein metabolism, cell-mediated immunity, and production of cytokines and prostanoids were studied in experimental animals and patients with esophageal cancer. In the experimental study using a rat burn model, n-6 PUFA increased serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), alpha (P < 0.05), and decreased nitrogen balance (NB) (P < 0.05), when compared with a fat-free control. But addition of n-3 PUFA reduced TNF-alpha and IL-10 (P < 0.05) and improved NB (P < 0.05). Suppressed delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) induced by burn injury, which was not influenced by n-6 PUFA, was significantly improved by the administration of n-3 PUFA. n-6 PUFA tended to increase, and n-3 PUFA significantly decreased the endotoxin translocation. DTH, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) content increased proportionately with the intravenous dose of fish oil emulsion. The effects of n-6 and n-3 PUFA were studied in the patients who underwent surgery for esophageal cancer. In the group of patients fed by total parenteral nutrition with soybean oil emulsion, the serum IL-6 significantly increased at 2 and 6 h after operation (P < 0.05). Oral/enteral supplementation of EPA ethyl ester (1.8 g/d) significantly reduced the postoperative IL-6 production (P < 0.05 at 1, 2, and 6 h after operation), and improved cell-mediated immune function 3 wk after operation (P = 0.05). During the chemoradiation therapy, cell-mediated immune function was improved significantly in the patients fed enterally with EPA ethyl ester (n = 5), when compared with the patients without EPA (n = 14).

Influence of n-3 fatty acids on the growth of human breast cancer cells in vitro: relationship to peroxides and vitamin-E.
Chajès V: Institute of Medical Biochemistry, University of Graz, Austria; Sattler W, Stranzl A, Kostner GM
Breast Cancer Res Treat 1995 Jun 34:199-212
Epidemiological studies suggest a causal relationship of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA's) with the morbidity and mortality from breast cancer. In order to reveal possible underlying mechanisms of these findings, we studied the influence of n-3 and n-6 PUFA's in comparison to oleic acid on the proliferation of well characterized estrogen dependent (MCF-7, ZR-75, T-47-D) and estrogen independent (MDA-MB-231, HBL-100) breast cancer cells in culture. The cell growth inhibitory effect was related to the formation of lipid peroxidation products. Normal human skin fibroblasts served as a control. In fibroblasts, the addition of 20 micrograms/ml of exogenous fatty acids either had no effect or caused an insignificant increase of proliferation. Similar results were obtained with MCF-7 cells. In all other breast cancer cell types, n-3 long-chain PUFA's, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, were the most effective fatty acids in arresting the cell growth. Alpha-linolenic and gamma-linolenic acid exerted a variable effect on cell proliferation depending on the cell line investigated. Oleic acid significantly stimulated the proliferation of hormone-independent breast cancer cells while it had no effect on the proliferation of hormone-dependent cells. Viability studies by trypan blue excretion indicated that the arrest in cell growth was not due to major cytotoxic effects. The addition of PUFA's to breast cancer cells caused a significant increase in the formation of conjugated dienes and lipid hydroperoxides in the cellular lipids; their content was significantly correlated with the capacity of arresting cell growth. In contrast, the addition of PUFA's to fibroblasts did not increase lipid hydroperoxide formation. The addition of Vitamin E to cancer cells at a concentration of 10 microM to the PUFA-supplemented medium almost completely restored cell growth. Our data indicate that PUFA's significantly interfere with cell proliferation of breast cancer cells in vitro due to the formation of oxidation products. In addition to that, there must be other factors involved, most probably related to the differential metabolism of PUFA's in tumor cells. Our findings may have some impact on treatment and prevention of breast cancer.

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Immunologic effects of national cholesterol education panel step-2 diets with and without fish-derived N-3 fatty acid enrichment.
Meydani SN: United States Department of Agriculture-Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston MA, USA; Lichtenstein AH, Cornwall S, Meydani M, Goldin BR, Rasmussen H, Dinarello CA, Schaefer EJ
J Clin Invest 1993 Jul 92:105-13
Reductions in dietary fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol have been recommended to reduce the risk of heart disease in our society. The effects of these modifications on human cytokine production and immune responses have not been well studied. 22 subjects > 40 yr of age were fed a diet approximating that of the current American (14.1% of calories as saturated fatty acids, [SFA], 14.5% monounsaturated fatty acids [MUFA], 6.1% [n-6] polyunsaturated fatty acids [PUFA], 0.8% [n-3] PUFA, and 147 mg cholesterol/1,000 calories) for 6 wk, after which time they consumed (11 in each group) one of the two low-fat, low-cholesterol, high-PUFA diets based on National Cholesterol Education Panel (NCEP) Step 2 recommendations (4.0-4.5% SFA, 10.8-11.6% MUFA, 10.3-10.5% PUFA, 45-61 mg cholesterol/1,000 calories) for 24 wk. One of the NCEP Step 2 diets was enriched in fish-derived (n-3) PUFA (low-fat, high-fish: 0.54% or 1.23 g/d eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA] [121-188 g fish/d]) and the other low in fish-derived (n-3) PUFA (low-fat, low-fish [0.13% or 0.27 g/d EPA and DHA] [33 g fish/d]). Measurements of in vivo and in vitro indexes of immune responses were taken after each dietary period. Long-term feeding of low-fat, low-fish diet enriched in plant-derived PUFA increased blood mononuclear cell mitogenic response to the T cell mitogen Con A, IL-1 beta, and TNF production and had no effect on delayed-type hypersensitivity skin response, IL-6, GM-CSF, or PGE2 production. In contrast, the low-fat, high-fish diet significantly decreased the percentage of helper T cells whereas the percentage of suppressor T cells increased. Mitogenic responses to Con A and delayed-type hypersensitivity skin response as well as the production of cytokines IL-1 beta, TNF, and IL-6 by mononuclear cells were significantly reduced after the consumption of the low-fat, high-fish diet (24, 40, 45, 35, and 34%, respectively; P < 0.05 by two-tailed Student's t test except for IL-1 beta and TNF, which is by one-tailed t test). Our data are consistent with the concept that the NCEP Step 2 diet that is high in fish significantly decreases various parameters of the immune response in contrast to this diet when it is low in fish. Such alterations may be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic and inflammatory diseases but may be detrimental with regard to host defense against invading pathogens.

Docosahexaenoic acid regulated genes and transcription factors inducing apoptosis in human colon cancer cells.
Narayanan BA: Microarray Systems Laboratory, Molecular Pathology and Bioinformatics Facility, American Health Foundation, Valhalla NY, USA; Narayanan NK, Reddy BS
Int J Oncol 2001 Dec 19:1255-62
Epidemiological and preclinical studies demonstrate that consumption of diets high in omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) reduce the risk of colon cancer. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFAs) is a major constituent of nutrients rich in n-3 PUFAs. There are studies to indicate that colon tumor inhibition by n-3 PUFA-rich diets is, in part, mediated through modulation of signaling pathways that alter gene expression which are involved in colon tumor growth. In the present study using CaCo-2 colon cancer cell lines we examined the effects of DHA on the genetic precursors of human colon cancer at the transcription level using DNA oligonucleotide arrays. Our results indicated that DHA inhibits the growth of CaCo-2 cells and induces apoptosis. For gene expression analysis using DNA microarrays, total RNA extracted from DHA treated CaCo-2 cells was converted to cDNA, labeled with Cy5-dCTP (DHA-treated) and Cy3-dCTP (untreated cells) and used as probes for hybridization in human chip spotted with 3,800 oligonucleotides consisting of 156 functional categories. The expression profiles of genes indicated a reprogramming pattern of previously known and unknown genes and transcription factors that provided clues to the possible functional mechanism of DHA. An average of (ratios from triplicate experiments) 504 out of 3,800 genes expressed after 48 h of DHA treatment. Altered expression on the transcription factors includes down regulation of nine members of the RNA II polymerases, transcription co-repressor associated protein and enhancer binding proteins such as AP2, in addition to changes in the expression of zinc finger group of transcription factors. Activation of cytochrome c which triggers caspases was associated with the elevated expression of pro-apoptotic caspases 10, 13, 8, 5 and 9 in DHA treated cells. Activation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors such as p21 (waf1/cip1), p27, p57, p19 and growth arrest specific proteins by more than 2-fold is consistent with the induction of apoptosis and inactivation of antiapototic Bcl-2 family of genes. Inactivation of prostaglandin family of genes, lipoxygenases and altered expression of peroxisome proliferators (PPARalpha and gamma) by DHA seem to indicate a lipid peroxidation-induced apoptosis in addition to effect reflected on the modification of cell cycle regulatory genes. These findings support the conclusion that a genomewide expression profiling of human colon cancer precursor genes and transcription factors provides a set of novel regulatory mechanism(s) to determine the chemopreventive efficacy of DHA and thus to prevent the inflammation and neoplasia.

n-3 PUFA and alpha-tocopherol control of tumor cell proliferation.
Bartoli GM: Department of Biology, Tor Vergata University, Rome, Italy; Palozza P, Marra G, Armelao F, Franceschelli P, Luberto C, Sgarlata E, Piccioni E, Anti M
Mol Aspects Med 1993 14:247-52
Subjects at high risk for colon cancer received different doses of fish oil on a 30-day randomized double-blind trial to evaluate the chemopreventive effect of n-3 fatty acids against colorectal cancer. Using rectal mucosal proliferation, assessed with 3H-thymidine autoradiography, fish oil induced in the treated groups but not in the placebo group a change in the proliferative pattern, which resulted similar to that observed in low risk population; in the same groups rectal mucosal n-3 fatty acid content increased, where arachidonic acid level decreased. Moreover, n-3 PUFA treatment induced modifications of Vitamin E status. The results suggest that n-3 PUFA could protect high-risk subjects from colon cancer by a mechanism involving a modulation of Vitamin E.

Increased cytotoxicity of polyunsaturated fatty acids on human tumoral B and T-cell lines compared with normal lymphocytes.
Anel A: Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain; Naval J, Desportes P, González B, Uriel J, Piñeiro A
Leukemia 1992 Jul 6:680-8
Epidemiological and experimental data suggest that fatty acids may modulate the growth of tumor cells. We have analyzed the effect of different types of fatty acids, bound to serum proteins in physiological conditions, on the lipid composition and growth of human neoplastic B and T-cell lines and compared their effect on normal lymphocyte proliferation. Fatty acids with 0 to 2 unsaturations (stearic, oleic, and linoleic), at concentrations up to 50 or 100 microM did not significantly affect the proliferation of leukemic cells. However, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and mainly docosahexaenoic (22:6, n-3), were cytotoxic at concentrations greater than or equal to 20 microM after 48-72 h in culture. Simultaneous supplementation with vitamin E restored normal cell growth. The amount of end-products of lipid peroxidation in cells correlated with the observed toxicity but the amount of superoxides did not. Fatty acid supplementations increased cell triacylglycerol content but did not affect the degree of unsaturation of phospholipids, cholesterol/phospholipids molar ratio, or membrane fluidity. Glutathione-S-transferase activity was low in Raji and CEM cells, moderate in lymphocytes and high in Ramos cells and did not increase with supplementations. The proliferation of normal lymphocytes, which produced lower amounts of end-products of lipid perodixation, was not inhibited, but in some cases stimulated, by PUFA (with the exception of 30 microM 22:6). The extension of these results to situations in vivo could lead to use of PUFA for delaying leukemia progression or in adjuvant chemotherapy.

Docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids inhibit in vitro human endothelial cell production of interleukin-6.
Khalfoun B: Groupe Interactions Hote-Greffon Laboratoire D'Immunologie, Faculte De Medicine, Tours, France; Thibault F, Watier H, Bardos P, Lebranchu Y
Adv Exp Med Biol 1997 400B:589-97
The interaction between lymphocytes, cytokines, and endothelial cells (EC) is a key step in the inflammatory process. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) a pleiotropic cytokine in its effects, seems to be an early indicator of acute systemic inflammation. In this study, we have examined the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on the production of IL-6 by human unstimulated EC or EC stimulated with TNF-alpha (100 U/ml); IL-4 (100 U/ml); LPS (1 ug/ml); or allogeneic peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). Twenty-four hour culture supernatants of immunoreactive IL-6 were measured by Sandwich ELISA. We have shown that the production of IL-6 was potentiated when EC were stimulated with TNF-alpha; IL-4; LPS; or monocyte-depleted PBL in comparison to unstimulated EC. The addition of n-3 PUFAs in culture medium (100 ug/ml DHA or EPA) significantly reduces the production of IL-6 by unstimulated EC; or stimulated with TNF-alpha; IL-4 pg/ml); LPS or depleted PBL respectively for DHA and EPA, whereas the n-6 PUFAs (Arachidonic acid), even used at the highest concentration, was ineffective. This inhibitory effect is PUFA dose dependent but is more potent with EPA than DHA. Regardless of the mode of action, since IL-6 is known to be involved in hematopoiesis, in the regulation of the immune response and in the inflammatory reaction, these results suggest that n-3 PUFAs may play a role in suppressing inflammation. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism involved and the choice between the two fatty acids for clinical and therapeutic purposes.

Linkage between retinoid and fatty acid receptors: implications for breast cancer prevention.
Stoll BA: Oncology Department, St Thomas' Hospital, London SE1 7EH, UK
Eur J Cancer Prev 2002 Aug 11:319-25
Certain dietary retinoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) consistently inhibit progression of mammary carcinogenesis both in animal studies and cell culture, but clinically, their effect is inconsistent. New evidence of synergistic interaction between the nuclear receptors for the two groups of nutritional agents suggests that appropriate selective ligands from each group might be combined in breast cancer chemoprevention studies. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma is a nuclear receptor that is activated by PUFAs, eicosanoids and antidiabetic agents such as troglitazone. Such activation can cause growth inhibition in human mammary cancer cells in culture and the effect is enhanced by ligands of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR). In mouse mammary tissue in organ culture, an RXR-selective ligand has been shown to enhance the effect of troglitazone in suppressing carcinogen-induced pre-neoplastic changes. A PPAR/RXR heterodimer is involved in tumour growth inhibition and has been shown to bind directly to nuclear oestrogen response elements (ERE) independently of oestrogen receptor (ER) activity. A combination of an RXR-selective retinoid with either troglitazone or else a long-chain n-3 PUFA, is proposed for a short-term study in postmenopausal women after primary surgery for intraductal breast cancer. The resulting activation of PPAR/RXR expression may increase response to retinoid administration, especially in the presence of obesity and insulin resistance, because of the ability of PPAR gamma ligands to reduce insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) concentrations. Serial core biopsies of breast tissue over a short term are proposed to identify changes in phenotype, which may influence progression to invasiveness. In addition to cytomorphological criteria, expression of ER alpha and beta, RAR alpha and beta, and IGF-I receptor in the nucleus should be examined.