Omega-3 Studien: Herzinfarkt

Omega-3: Fakten - Therapie und Dosierung

Herzinfarkt: 1,0g/Tag EPA & DHA als sekundäre Prävention
In Fachzeitschriften wurden folgende Artikel über Omega-3 publiziert. Die Liste dieser Publikationen wurde im April 2003 kompiliert und erhebt keinen Anspruch auf Vollständigkeit. Quelle: MEDLINE.
Die Daten dienen als Referenz für Ärzte und Therapeuten, damit eine therapeutische Dosis bei Herzinfarkt festgelegt werden kann.

n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cardiovascular diseases.
Nordøy A: Department of Medicine, University of Tromsø, Norway; Marchioli R, Arnesen H, Videbaek J
Lipids 2001 36 Suppl:S127-9
An expert round table discussion on the relationship between intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) mainly of marine sources and coronary heart disease at the 34th Annual Scientific Meeting of European Society for Clinical Investigation came to the following conclusions: 1. Consumption of 1-2 fish meals/wk is associated with reduced coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality. 2. Patients who have experienced myocardial infarction have decreased risk of total, cardiovascular, coronary, and sudden death by drug treatment with 1 g/d of ethylesters of n-3 PUFA, mainly as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The effect is present irrespective of high or low traditional fish intake or simultaneous intake of other drugs for secondary CHD prevention. n-3 PUFA may also be given as fatty fish or triglyceride concentrates. 3. Patients who have experienced coronary artery bypass surgery with venous grafts may reduce graft occlusion rates by administration of 4 g/d of n-3 PUFA. 4. Patients with moderate hypertension may reduce blood pressure by administration of 4 g/d of n-3 PUFA. 5. After heart transplantation, 4 g/d of n-3 PUFA may protect against development of hypertension. 6. Patients with dyslipidemia and or postprandial hyperlipemia may reduce their coronary risk profile by administration of 1-4 g/d of marine n-3 PUFA. The combination with statins seems to be a potent alternative in these patients. 7. There is growing evidence that daily intake of up to 1 energy% of nutrients from plant n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid) may decrease the risk for myocardial infarction and death in patients with CHD. This paper summarizes the conclusions of an expert panel on the relationship between n-3 PUFA and CHD. The objectives for the experts were to formulate scientifically sound conclusions on the effects of fish in the diet and the administration of marine n-3 PUFA, mainly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), and eventually of plant n-3 PUFA, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3), on primary and secondary prevention of CHD. Fish in the diet should be considered as part of a healthy diet low in saturated fats for everybody, whereas additional administration of n-3 PUFA concentrates could be given to specific groups of patients. This workshop was organized on the basis of questions sent to the participants beforehand, on brief introductions by the participants, and finally on discussion and analysis by a group of approximately 40 international scientists in the fields of nutrition, cardiology, epidemiology, lipidology, and thrombosis.

n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids, fatal ischemic heart disease, and nonfatal myocardial infarction in older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study.
Lemaitre RN: Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, USA; King IB, Mozaffarian D, Kuller LH, Tracy RP, Siscovick DS
Am J Clin Nutr 2003 Feb 77:319-25
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the relation of the dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, ie, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from fatty fish and alpha-linolenic acid from vegetable oils, with ischemic heart disease among older adults. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the associations of plasma phospholipid concentrations of DHA, EPA, and alpha-linolenic acid as biomarkers of intake with the risk of incident fatal ischemic heart disease and incident nonfatal myocardial infarction in older adults. DESIGN: We conducted a case-control study nested in the Cardiovascular Health Study, a cohort study of adults aged > or = 65 y. Cases experienced incident fatal myocardial infarction and other ischemic heart disease death (n = 54) and incident nonfatal myocardial infarction (n = 125). Matched controls were randomly selected (n = 179). We measured plasma phospholipid concentrations of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in blood samples drawn approximately 2 y before the event. RESULTS: A higher concentration of combined DHA and EPA was associated with a lower risk of fatal ischemic heart disease, and a higher concentration of alpha-linolenic acid with a tendency to lower risk, after adjustment for risk factors [odds ratio: 0.32 (95% CI: 0.13, 0.78; P = 0.01) and 0.52 (0.24, 1.15; P = 0.1), respectively]. In contrast, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were not associated with nonfatal myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS: Higher combined dietary intake of DHA and EPA, and possibly alpha-linolenic acid, may lower the risk of fatal ischemic heart disease in older adults. The association of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with fatal ischemic heart disease, but not with nonfatal myocardial infarction, is consistent with possible antiarrhythmic effects of these fatty acids.

Effects of supplementation with fish oil-derived n-3 fatty acids and gamma-linolenic acid on circulating plasma lipids and fatty acid profiles in women.
Laidlaw M: Department of Human Biology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Canada; Holub BJ
Am J Clin Nutr 2003 Jan 77:37-42
BACKGROUND: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) have lipid-modifying and antiinflammatory properties. The effects of supplement mixtures of these fatty acids on plasma lipids and the fatty acid compositions of serum phospholipids have received little attention. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine the effects of different levels of GLA supplementation together with a constant intake of EPA plus DHA on the triacylglycerol-lowering effect of EPA plus DHA alone and on the fatty acid patterns (eicosanoid precursors) of serum phospholipids. DESIGN: Thirty-one women were assigned to 1 of 4 groups, equalized on the basis of their fasting triacylglycerol concentrations. They received supplements providing 4 g EPA+DHA (4:0, EPA+DHA:GLA; control group), 4 g EPA+DHA plus 1 g GLA (4:1), 2 g GLA (4:2), or 4 g GLA (4:4) daily for 28 d. Plasma lipids and fatty acids of serum phospholipids were measured on days 0 and 28. RESULTS: Plasma triacylglycerol concentrations were significantly lower on day 28 than on day 0 in the 4:0, 4:1, and 4:2 groups. LDL cholesterol decreased significantly (by 11.3%) in the 4:2 group. Dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid increased significantly in serum phospholipids only in the 4:2 and 4:4 groups; however, total n-3 fatty acids increased in all 4 groups. CONCLUSIONS: A mixture of 4 g EPA+DHA and 2 g GLA favorably altered blood lipid and fatty acid profiles in healthy women. On the basis of calculated PROCAM values, the 4:2 group was estimated to have a 43% reduction in the 10-y risk of myocardial infarction.

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Serum free fatty acid pattern and risk of myocardial infarction: a case-control study.
Yli-Jama P: Institute for Nutrition Research, Medical Faculty, University of Oslo, Norway; Meyer HE, Ringstad J, Pedersen JI
J Intern Med 2002 Jan 251:19-28
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between composition of serum free fatty acid (FFA) fraction and risk of a first myocardial infarction (MI). DESIGN: A case-control design. SETTING: The patients were recruited from Ullevö Hospital in Oslo and Ostfold Central Hospital in Fredrikstad and Sarpsborg, Norway. SUBJECTS: A total of 103 patients with first MI and 104 population controls, both men and postmenopausal women, age 45-75 years. RESULTS: The mean molar percentage content of docosahexaenoic (DHA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), stearic and myristic acid in the serum FFA fraction was significantly lower in cases than in controls, whereas that of oleic and linoleic acid was higher in cases. Increased percentage content of total very long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (VLC n-3) in serum FFA was associated with decreased risk of MI. Multivariate odds ratio (OR), adjusted for age, sex, waist-hip ratio, smoking, family history of coronary heart disease (CHD) and years of education was 0.20 (95% CI 0.06-0.63) for the highest vs. lowest quartile. Also increased content of stearic acid was associated with decreased risk. Multivariate OR adjusted as above was 0.38 (95% CI 0.14-1.04) for the highest versus lowest quartile. After adjustment for oleic acid, however, the inverse linear trend was no longer significant. CONCLUSIONS: The percentage content of VLC n-3 as well as of stearic acid in serum FFA was inversely associated with risk of myocardial infarction. That of VLC n-3 may reflect diet, but additionally these free fatty acids might in some way be related to the pathogenetic process and not only reflect their content in adipose tissue.

Influence of highly concentrated n-3 fatty acids on serum lipids and hemostatic variables in survivors of myocardial infarction receiving either oral anticoagulants or matching placebo.
Smith P, Arnesen H, Opstad T, Dahl KH, Eritsland J
Thromb Res 1989 Mar 53:467-74
Forty patients with previous myocardial infarction were given 4 capsules with 1 g concentrated fish oil preparation daily for 4 weeks. No special diet was applied. The supplementation was equivalent to 3.4 grams of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) daily. Twenty-two of the 40 subjects received concomitant treatment with long-term oral anticoagulants (OAC). The fatty acid composition of serum after the supplementation period showed a significant increase in the proportion of EPA and DHA, while arachidonic acid (AA) remained essentially constant. This resulted in a rise of the EPA/AA ratio from 0.59 to 1.49 (p less than 0.001), confirming satisfying absorption of the concentrate. Blood lipids showed an overall decrease of triglycerides (TG) by 25% (p = 0.02), while total cholesterol rose by 5% (p = 0.03) and HDL-cholesterol was unaffected. Blood glucose and the TG associated factors plasminogen activator inhibitor and factor VII-phospholipid complex revealed trends towards reduction. Ivy bleeding time showed a significant prolongation, the median increasing from 240 to 270 seconds. A significant increase of fibrinogen was seen, as was a decrease of clotting time in the combined prothrombin test in patients receiving concomitant OAC. Thus, given for 4 weeks, the investigated concentrate of n-3 fatty acids exerts not merely beneficial effects as far as the risk profile for atherosclerotic disease is concerned. The results also point towards interactions with OAC that may be of clinical relevance

Health benefits of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
Horrocks LA: Docosa Foods Ltd, Columbus, OH, USA; Yeo YK
Pharmacol Res 1999 Sep 40:211-25
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is essential for the growth and functional development of the brain in infants. DHA is also required for maintenance of normal brain function in adults. The inclusion of plentiful DHA in the diet improves learning ability, whereas deficiencies of DHA are associated with deficits in learning. DHA is taken up by the brain in preference to other fatty acids. The turnover of DHA in the brain is very fast, more so than is generally realized. The visual acuity of healthy, full-term, formula-fed infants is increased when their formula includes DHA. During the last 50 years, many infants have been fed formula diets lacking DHA and other omega-3 fatty acids. DHA deficiencies are associated with foetal alcohol syndrome, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, cystic fibrosis, phenylketonuria, unipolar depression, aggressive hostility, and adrenoleukodystrophy. Decreases in DHA in the brain are associated with cognitive decline during aging and with onset of sporadic Alzheimer disease. The leading cause of death in western nations is cardiovascular disease. Epidemiological studies have shown a strong correlation between fish consumption and reduction in sudden death from myocardial infarction. The reduction is approximately 50% with 200 mg day(-1)of DHA from fish. DHA is the active component in fish. Not only does fish oil reduce triglycerides in the blood and decrease thrombosis, but it also prevents cardiac arrhythmias. The association of DHA deficiency with depression is the reason for the robust positive correlation between depression and myocardial infarction. Patients with cardiovascular disease or Type II diabetes are often advised to adopt a low-fat diet with a high proportion of carbohydrate. A study with women shows that this type of diet increases plasma triglycerides and the severity of Type II diabetes and coronary heart disease. DHA is present in fatty fish (salmon, tuna, mackerel) and mother's milk. DHA is present at low levels in meat and eggs, but is not usually present in infant formulas. EPA, another long-chain n-3 fatty acid, is also present in fatty fish. The shorter chain n-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid, is not converted very well to DHA in man. These longchain n-3 fatty acids (also known as omega-3 fatty acids) are now becoming available in some foods, especially infant formula and eggs in Europe and Japan. Fish oil decreases the proliferation of tumour cells, whereas arachidonic acid, a longchain n-6 fatty acid, increases their proliferation. These opposite effects are also seen with inflammation, particularly with rheumatoid arthritis, and with asthma. DHA has a positive effect on diseases such as hypertension, arthritis, atherosclerosis, depression, adult-onset diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction, thrombosis, and some cancers.

The Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardio (GISSI)-Prevenzione Trial on fish oil and vitamin E supplementation in myocardial infarction survivors.
Stone NJ: Northwestern University School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA
Curr Cardiol Rep 2000 Sep 2:445-51
A recent large-scale, open-label, randomized, controlled trial in 11, 324 myocardial infarction (MI) survivors has shown low-dose fish oil, but not vitamin E, to reduce significantly the cumulative rate of all-cause death, nonfatal MI, and nonfatal stroke. Neither intervention significantly reduced the other primary endpoint, the cumulate rate of cardiovascular death, nonfatal MI, and nonfatal stroke. Analysis of secondary endpoints indicated that the benefits of the 875 mg fish oil capsules containing 850 to 882 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as ethyl esters was in reducing mortality and not in a reduction of nonfatal MI. It was a safe intervention. The internal validity and external validity of the data was examined and the findings placed in clinical perspective. Important questions remain about the benefits of increased plant sources of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) for those who cannot obtain or consume fish. Also the benefits of diet versus fish oil supplementation haven't been determined precisely. Although it seems reasonable to increase sources of n-3 PUFA in the diet for those at high risk of coronary heart disease, current data do not support a policy of promoting fish oil capsules for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease.

Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E after myocardial infarction: results of the GISSI-Prevenzione trial.
Valagussa F and the Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto miocardico
Lancet 1999 354:447-455
BACKGROUND: There is conflicting evidence on the benefits of foods rich in vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol), n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and their pharmacological substitutes. We investigated the effects of these substances as supplements in patients who had myocardial infarction. METHODS: From October, 1993, to September, 1995, 11,324 patients surviving recent (< or = 3 months) myocardial infarction were randomly assigned supplements of n-3 PUFA (1 g daily, n=2836), vitamin E (300 mg daily, n=2830), both (n=2830), or none (control, n=2828) for 3.5 years. The primary combined efficacy endpoint was death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and stroke. Intention-to-treat analyses were done according to a factorial design (two-way) and by treatment group (four-way). FINDINGS: Treatment with n-3 PUFA, but not vitamin E, significantly lowered the risk of the primary endpoint (relative-risk decrease 10% [95% CI 1-18] by two-way analysis, 15% [2-26] by four-way analysis). Benefit was attributable to a decrease in the risk of death (14% [3-24] two-way, 20% [6-33] four-way) and cardiovascular death (17% [3-29] two-way, 30% [13-44] four-way). The effect of the combined treatment was similar to that for n-3 PUFA for the primary endpoint (14% [1-26]) and for fatal events (20% [5-33]). INTERPRETATION: Dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA led to a clinically important and statistically significant benefit. Vitamin E had no benefit. Its effects on fatal cardiovascular events require further exploration.

Intake of fish and omega-3 fatty acids and risk of stroke in women.
Iso H: Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston MA, USA; Rexrode KM, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, Colditz GA, Speizer FE, Hennekens CH, Willett WC
JAMA 2001 Jan 285:304-12
CONTEXT: Some prospective studies have shown an inverse association between fish intake and risk of stroke, but none has examined the relationship of fish and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake with risk of specific stroke subtypes. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between fish and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and risk of stroke subtypes in women. DESIGN, SETTING, AND SUBJECTS: Prospective cohort study of women in the Nurses' Health Study cohort, aged 34 to 59 years in 1980, who were free from prior diagnosed cardiovascular disease, cancer, and history of diabetes and hypercholesterolemia and who completed a food frequency questionnaire including consumption of fish and other frequently eaten foods. The 79 839 women who met our eligibility criteria were followed up for 14 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Relative risk of stroke in 1980-1994 compared by category of fish intake and quintile of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake. RESULTS: After 1 086 261 person-years of follow-up, 574 incident strokes were documented, including 119 subarachnoid hemorrhages, 62 intraparenchymal hemorrhages, 303 ischemic strokes (264 thrombotic and 39 embolic infarctions), and 90 strokes of undetermined type. Among thrombotic infarctions, 90 large-artery occlusive infarctions and 142 lacunar infarctions were identified. Compared with women who ate fish less than once per month, those with higher intake of fish had a lower risk of total stroke: the multivariate relative risks (RRs), adjusted for age, smoking, and other cardiovascular risk factors, were 0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65-1.34) for fish consumption 1 to 3 times per month, 0.78 (95% CI, 0.55-1.12) for once per week, 0.73 (95% CI, 0.47-1.14) for 2 to 4 times per week, and 0.48 (95% CI, 0.21-1.06) for 5 or more times per week (P for trend =.06). Among stroke subtypes, a significantly reduced risk of thrombotic infarction was found among women who ate fish 2 or more times per week (multivariate RR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.26-0.93). Women in the highest quintile of intake of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids had reduced risk of total stroke and thrombotic infarction, with multivariate RRs of 0.72 (95% CI, 0.53-0.99) and 0.67 (95% CI, 0.42-1.07), respectively. When stratified by aspirin use, fish and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intakes were inversely associated with risk of thrombotic infarction, primarily among women who did not regularly take aspirin. There was no association between fish or omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and risk of hemorrhagic stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that higher consumption of fish and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with a reduced risk of thrombotic infarction, primarily among women who do not take aspirin regularly, but is not related to risk of hemorrhagic stroke.

Clinical trial evidence for the cardioprotective effects of omega-3 fatty acids.
Harris WS: Mid America Heart Institute of Saint Luke's Hospital and Department of Medicine, University of Missouri-Kansas City, USA; Isley WL
Curr Atheroscler Rep 2001 Mar 3:174-9
The notion that marine omega (w)-3 fatty acids might have beneficial cardiovascular effects was first suggested by epidemiologic studies in Greenland Inuits published in the late 1970s. These simple observations spawned hundreds of other studies, the confluence of which strongly suggests a true cardioprotective effect of w-3 fatty acids. The strongest confirmation has come from the publication of three randomized clinical trials, all of which reported benefits to patients with preexisting coronary artery disease. The most convincing of these was the Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto miocardico (GISSI)-Prevezione study, in which 5654 patients with coronary artery disease were randomized to either w-3 fatty acids (850 mg/d) or usual care. After 3.5 years, those taking the w-3 fatty acids had experienced a 20% reduction in overall mortality and a 45% decrease in risk for sudden cardiac death. These findings support the view that relatively small intakes of w-3 fatty acids are indeed cardioprotective, and suggest that they may operate by stabilizing the myocardium itself.

Fish consumption and the 30-year risk of fatal myocardial infarction.
Daviglus ML: Department of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago IL, USA; Stamler J, Orencia AJ, Dyer AR, Liu K, Greenland P, Walsh MK, Morris D, Shekelle RB
N Engl J Med 1997 Apr 336:1046-53
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic data on the possible benefit of eating fish to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease have been inconsistent. We used data from the Chicago Western Electric Study to examine the relation between base-line fish consumption and the 30-year risk of death from coronary heart disease. METHODS: The study participants were 1822 men who were 40 to 55 years old and free of cardiovascular disease at base line. Fish consumption, as determined from a detailed dietary history, was stratified (0, 1 to 17, 18 to 34, and > or = 35 g per day). Mortality from coronary heart disease, ascertained from death certificates, was classified as death from myocardial infarction (sudden or nonsudden) or death from other coronary causes. RESULTS: During 47,153 person-years of follow-up, there were 430 deaths from coronary heart disease; 293 were due to myocardial infarctions (196 were sudden, 94 were nonsudden, and 3 were not classifiable). Cox proportional-hazards regression showed that for men who consumed 35 g or more of fish daily as compared with those who consumed none, the relative risks of death from coronary heart disease and from sudden or nonsudden myocardial infarction were 0.62 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.40 to 0.94) and 0.56 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.33 to 0.93), respectively, with a graded relation between the relative risks and the strata of fish consumption (P for trend = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively). These findings were accounted for by the relation of fish consumption to nonsudden death from myocardial infarction (relative risk, 0.33; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.12 to 0.91; P for trend= 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: These data show an inverse association between fish consumption and death from coronary heart disease, especially nonsudden death from myocardial infarction.