Omega-3: Fakten - Therapie und Dosierung
Multiple Sklerose MS: 0,9g/Tag EPA & DHA + Vitamine + Diät
In Fachzeitschriften wurden folgende Artikel über Omega-3 publiziert. Die Liste dieser Publikationen wurde im April 2003 kompiliert und erhebt keinen Anspruch auf Vollständigkeit. Quelle: MEDLINE.
Die Daten dienen als Referenz für Ärzte und Therapeuten, damit eine therapeutische Dosis bei Multiple Sklerose festgelegt werden kann.
Cytokine secretion and eicosanoid production in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of MS patients undergoing dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Gallai V: Neurological Clinic, University of Perugia, Italy; Sarchielli P, Trequattrini A, Franceschini M, Floridi A, Firenze C, Alberti A, Di Benedetto D, Stragliotto E
J Neuroimmunol 1995 Feb 56:143-53
To demonstrate the influence of n-3 PUFA supplementation on cytokine and eicosanoid production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of MS patients (MSP), we investigated the impact of a 6-month dietary supplementation with these fatty acids on the levels of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), IL-2, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in the supernatants of stimulated PBMCs and serum soluble IL-2 receptors in a group of 20 relapsing-remitting (R-R) MSP and a group of 15 age-matched control individuals (CI). The production of PGE2 and LTB4 in the stimulated PBMCs was also assessed in patient and control groups supplemented with n-3 PUFAs. In both groups, n-3 PUFA supplementation led to a significant decrease in the levels of IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha, and this reduction was more pronounced in the 3rd and 6th month of supplementation. An analogous decrease was observed in the levels of IL-2 and IFN-gamma produced by stimulated PBMCs, and in the levels of serum soluble IL-2 receptors. n-3 PUFA supplementation also appeared to significantly affect prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) production in PBMCs, both in MSP and the control group. The reduced production of these proinflammatory eicosanoids, and the decrease of some cytokines with an immunohenancing effect as a consequence of n-3 PUFA supplementation, could modulate some immune functions which have been demonstrated to be altered in MSP.
Lipid and fatty acid composition is altered in plaque tissue from multiple sclerosis brain compared with normal brain white matter.
Wilson R: Department of Biological and Molecular Sciences, School of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Scotland, U.K; Tocher DR
Lipids 1991 Jan 26:9-15
Plaques and white matter from brains of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients were analyzed for lipid content, class composition, and fatty acid composition of total lipid, together with the fatty acid composition of plaque glycerophospholipids, and the results were compared with white matter from normal brain. Plaques contained less than 30% of the lipid present in normal white matter. Plaque lipid was characterized by significantly increased proportions of glycerophospholipids and decreased cerebrosides and sulfatides. In addition, a subacute plaque contained approximately 10 times the proportion of steryl esters observed in chronic plaques or normal white matter. Total lipid from all the MS plaques showed significantly increased percentages of saturated fatty acids, n-6, n-3 and total polyunsaturated fatty acids and decreased percentages of monoenes and alk-l-enyl ethers in comparison with normal brains. These results were consistent with increased cellularity and astrogliosis associated with MS plaques. However, analysis of plaque glycerophospholipids showed that the fatty acid changes observed in total lipid were not simply due to the increased proportion of glycerophospholipids and decreased myelin lipids, but that the fatty acid composition of the individual glycerophospholipids was different.
A double-blind controlled trial of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of multiple sclerosis.
Bates D: Department of Neurology, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; Cartlidge NE, French JM, Jackson MJ, Nightingale S, Shaw DA, Smith S, Woo E, Hawkins SA, Millar JH
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1989 Jan 52:18-22
A trial of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of multiple sclerosis has been conducted over a 5 year period. Ambulant patients (312) with acute remitting disease were randomly allocated to treatment or placebo. Both groups were given dietary advice to increase the intake of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the treatment group in addition received capsules containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Analysis of clinical outcome at the end of 2 years of treatment was made in terms of the duration, frequency and severity of relapses and the number of patients who had improved or remained unchanged. The results showed no significant difference at the usual 95% confidence limits but there was a trend in favour of the group treated with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in all parameters examined.
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Red blood cell and adipose tissue fatty acids in mild inactive multiple sclerosis.
Nightingale S: Department of Neurology, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne; , Woo E, Smith AD, French JM, Gale MM, Sinclair HM, Bates D, Shaw DA
Acta Neurol Scand 1990 Jul 82:43-50
The fatty acid profiles of phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidyl choline (PC) of the red blood cells of 30 patients with mild inactive multiple sclerosis (MS) and 30 healthy controls were studied by gas chromatography. The groups were well matched for factors likely to influence tissue lipid levels, including diet. The MS patients showed a significant reduction in PE eicosapentaenoic acid (p = 0.009) especially in women, and an increase in both PE dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (p = 0.004) and PC stearic acid (p = 0.04). No reduction in linoleic acid was observed in either the PC or PE fractions of the MS subjects. A similar study of the fatty acid profile in adipose tissue in 26 MS and 35 healthy controls found no detectable eicosapentaenoic acid in either group. However, whereas docosahexaenoic acid was not detectable in any MS patient, 40% of the controls had measurable levels varying from to 0.1 to 0.3% of total estimated fatty acid (p = 0.0003). No reduction in linoleic acid in MS subjects was observed. Supplementation with oral fish body oil demonstrated that n-3 fatty acids were incorporated into red blood cells over 5 weeks and this occurred equally in MS and controls. The effects of oral supplementation on adipose tissue were studied after 1 and 2 years. Whereas many fatty acids such as linoleic acid were raised at 1 year, but did not rise subsequently, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid continued to rise through the 2-year period.
Effect of dietary advice and n-3 supplementation in newly diagnosed MS patients.
Nordvik I: Department of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway; Myhr KM, Nyland H, Bjerve KS
Acta Neurol Scand 2000 Sep 102:143-9
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether supplementation with fish oil given together with dietary advice and vitamin supplementation influenced the clinical outcome in newly diagnosed multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixteen consecutive, newly diagnosed patients with multiple sclerosis were recruited to an open intervention study. They were given dietary advice and supplemented with 0.9 g/day of long-chain marine fatty acids and vitamins. The patients were followed for 2 years with respect to dietary habits, blood parameters and neurological assessment including exacerbation rate. RESULTS: There was a significant reduction in the mean annual exacerbation rate and the mean Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) as compared to pre-study values. The plasma total phospholipid n-3 fatty acids increased and n-6 fatty acids decreased significantly. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that fish oil supplementation given together with vitamins and dietary advice can improve clinical outcome in patients with newly diagnosed MS.
Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and depression: when cholesterol does not satisfy.
Hibbeln JR: Laboratory of Membrane Biophysics and Biochemistry, DICBR, National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Rockville MD, USA; Salem N
Am J Clin Nutr 1995 Jul 62:1-9
Recent studies have both offered and contested the proposition that lowering plasma cholesterol by diet and medications increases suicide, homicide, and depression. Significant confounding factors include the quantity and distribution of dietary n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated essential fatty acids that influence serum lipids and alter the biophysical and biochemical properties of cell membranes. Epidemiological studies in various countries and in the United States in the last century suggest that decreased n-3 fatty acid consumption correlates with increasing rates of depression. This is consistent with a well-established positive correlation between depression and coronary artery disease. Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturate deficiency may also contribute to depressive symptoms in alcoholism, multiple sclerosis, and post-partum depression. We postulate that adequate long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid, may reduce the development of depression just as n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may reduce coronary artery disease.