- Therapie und Dosierung
keine eindeutige Angaben, ein ev. Einsatz ist konkludent
In Fachzeitschriften wurden folgende Artikel über Omega-3
publiziert. Die Liste dieser Publikationen wurde im April 2003
kompiliert und erhebt keinen Anspruch auf Vollständigkeit.
Die Daten dienen als Referenz für Ärzte und Therapeuten,
damit eine ev. präventive Dosis gegen Hyperaktivität
von Kindern festgelegt werden könnte.
fatty acids in human milk and their role in early infant development.
Koletzko B: Division Metabolic Diseases
and Nutrition Kinderklinik and Kinderpoliklinik, Dr. von Haunersches
Kinderspital, Ludwigs-Maximilians-University of Munich; Rodriguez-Palmero M
J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 1999 Jul 4:269-84
The lipid fraction of human milk represents
the main source of energy for the newborn infant and supplies essential
nutrients such as fat-soluble vitamins and polyunsaturated fatty
acids (PUFA). The essential fatty acids linoleic and alpha-linolenic
acids are precursors of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA),
such as arachidonic (C20:4 n-6) and docosahexaenoic (C22:6 n-3)
acids, present in human milk in considerable amounts. LC-PUFA are
indispensable structural components of all cellular membranes, and
they are incorporated in relatively large amounts during early growth
of the brain and the retina. Moreover, some LC-PUFA are precursors
of eicosanoids, molecules with potent biological activity that modulates
various cellular and tissue processes. The supply of long-chain
fatty acids has been associated with functional outcomes of the
recipient infants such as visual acuity and development of cognitive
functions during the first year of life. Here we discuss the
PUFA composition of human milk, factors which determine and modulate
milk PUFA content, and possible effects of milk LC-PUFA on infant
growth and development.
benefits of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
Horrocks LA, Yeo YK
Pharmacol Res 1999 Sep 40:211-25
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is essential for
the growth and functional development of the brain in infants. DHA
is also required for maintenance of normal brain function in adults.
The inclusion of plentiful DHA in the diet improves learning ability,
whereas deficiencies of DHA are associated with deficits in learning.
DHA is taken up by the brain in preference to other fatty acids.
The turnover of DHA in the brain is very fast, more so than is generally
realized. The visual acuity of healthy, full-term, formula-fed infants
is increased when their formula includes DHA. During the last 50
years, many infants have been fed formula diets lacking DHA and
other omega-3 fatty acids. DHA deficiencies are associated with
foetal alcohol syndrome, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,
cystic fibrosis, phenylketonuria, unipolar depression, aggressive
hostility, and adrenoleukodystrophy. Decreases in DHA in the brain
are associated with cognitive decline during aging and with onset
of sporadic Alzheimer disease. The leading cause of death in
western nations is cardiovascular disease. Epidemiological studies
have shown a strong correlation between fish consumption and reduction
in sudden death from myocardial infarction. The reduction is approximately
50% with 200 mg day(-1)of DHA from fish. DHA is the active component
in fish. Not only does fish oil reduce triglycerides in the blood
and decrease thrombosis, but it also prevents cardiac arrhythmias.
The association of DHA deficiency with depression is the reason
for the robust positive correlation between depression and myocardial
infarction. Patients with cardiovascular disease or Type II
diabetes are often advised to adopt a low-fat diet with a high proportion
of carbohydrate. A study with women shows that this type of diet
increases plasma triglycerides and the severity of Type II diabetes
and coronary heart disease. DHA is present in fatty fish (salmon,
tuna, mackerel) and mother's milk. DHA is present at low levels
in meat and eggs, but is not usually present in infant formulas.
EPA, another long-chain n-3 fatty acid, is also present in fatty
fish. The shorter chain n-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid, is
not converted very well to DHA in man. These longchain n-3 fatty
acids (also known as omega-3 fatty acids) are now becoming available
in some foods, especially infant formula and eggs in Europe and
Japan. Fish oil decreases the proliferation of tumour cells, whereas
arachidonic acid, a longchain n-6 fatty acid, increases their proliferation.
These opposite effects are also seen with inflammation, particularly
with rheumatoid arthritis, and with asthma. DHA has a positive effect
on diseases such as hypertension, arthritis, atherosclerosis, depression,
adult-onset diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction, thrombosis,
and some cancers.
n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid diet-deficiency acts on dopamine
metabolism in the rat frontal cortex: a microdialysis study.
Zimmer L: INSERM U316, Laboratoire de Biophysique Médicale
et Pharmaceutique, Faculté de Pharmacie, Tours, France; Hembert
S, Durand G, Breton P, Guilloteau D, Besnard JC, Chalon S
Neurosci Lett 1998 Jan 240:177-81
The effects of alpha-linolenic acid diet deficiency on rat dopaminergic
metabolism were investigated in the frontal cortex of male 2-3 month-old
rats using the microdialysis method. Increased basal levels of dopamine
metabolites were observed in the frontal cortex of awake deficient
rats, without modification of dopamine levels. Moreover, using KCl
perfusion which releases newly synthesized dopamine, no difference
was observed in anaesthetized deficient rats versus control rats.
In addition, a decrease in dopamine release was observed in anaesthetized
deficient rats versus control rats after tyramine stimulation, which
is known to induce release of dopamine from vesicular stores. A
working model is proposed which suggests that a chronic n-3 polyunsaturated
fatty acids (PUFA) deficiency may lead to modifications in the internalization
of dopamine in the storage pool in the frontal cortex.
essential fatty acids in the function of the developing nervous
Uauy R: Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA), University
of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Peirano P, Hoffman D, Mena P, Birch D,
Lipids 1996 Mar 31 Suppl:S167-76
The basis for n-3 fatty acid essentially in humans includes not
only biochemical evidence but functional measures associated with
n-3 deficiency in human and nonhuman primates. Functional development
of the retina and the occipital cortex are affected by alpha-linolenic
acid deficiency and by a lack of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in preterm
infant formulas and, as reported more recently, in term diets. Functional
effects of n-3 supply on sleep-wake cycles and heart rate rhythms
support the need for dietary n-3 fatty acids during early development.
Our results indicate that n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids
should be considered provisionally essential for infant nutrition.
DHA may also be required by individuals with inherited metabolic
defects in elongation and desaturation activity, such as patients
with peroxisomal disorders and some forms of retinitis pigmentosa.